For Eliade, the use of psychoactive plants in initiation and spiritual development represents a kind of degeneration from the original, pure and true forms of shamanism. By bringing to the fore these conflicts, she makes a significant contribution to the debate over religious phenomena, generally colored by a bias towards notions of equilibrium.
Echeverri and Pereira use their own personal experiences to understand the social and bodily disciplines enacted by indigenous Amazonian users of coca and tobacco.
Initially, "psychedelic" included sacred contexts of substance use. Culture is dynamic; which is to say, it is in constant transformation, and this transformation implies the rupture of some of the dualisms noted above. The La Paz revolution marked a complete split with the Spanish government, while the Chuquisaca Revolution established a local independent junta in the name of the Spanish King deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Because the various chapters are based on different perspectives and theories without an exact consensus as to the definition of the term, it is probably useful at this point to provide an extensive definition of "ritual".
Based on the discussions that emerged from the first volume, we realized that ayahuasca, used in various cultural contexts, was not an isolated or exceptional case. In Chile, the government and public rejected the peace treaty.
In terms of definitions of ritual, we see a combination of different emphases even within the work of a single author.
She shows how legality is not something clear and pre-defined, but rather a process of constant construction. Turner a, b borrowed Van Gennep's notion of rites of passage consisting of three phases--separation, liminality and reaggregation--to theorize ritual as a process capable of including, in its liminal phase, a rejection of social order.
Late 20th century[ edit ] Main article: First, to say that psychoactive substances are present and important in some shamanic contexts does not mean that all shamanic practices depend upon or are universally associated with these substances.
MacRae's chapter on Cannabis use in this volume, which draws on the concepts of Zinberg and Grund, offers an example of how rituals can organize the consumption of a psychoactive substance in a specific context.
Thus, some authors, including several in this collection, choose to use the term "entheogen" instead of the more established term "hallucinogen" in order to avoid its implications of false or deluded thinking. This translated introduction to the Portugese-language book O Uso Ritual das Plantas de Poder explores how the ritual use of plants that alter perception leads us to new and diverse reflections on the use of "drugs" in contemporary society, far beyond the conventional debates and positions on this question.
From this basis, she concentrates on processes of distinction and continuity between these three religious traditions, focusing on the mutual suspicions and alliances that have occurred between them and thereby highlighting their apparent symbolic, ritual, and cosmological differences.
Bianchi's provocative contribution problematizes those approaches that suggest a supposedly linear evolution from indigenous ayahuasca shamanism to the mestizo vegetalismo tradition practiced among riverine populations in Peru.
She starts with an historical overview of these religious movements and discusses their processes of formation.
Such rituals are symbolic and create realities; which is to say, they have the capacity to interfere in the real world. He reviews the past years of studies on psychoactive substances, which he considers represents a new field of epistemology.
Bruno Cavalcanti also takes up the idea that prohibition can function as a principal cause of undesirable effects in the case of Cannabis use.
The term jurema refers to an enormous diversity of substances, modes of consumption, and meanings. On the contrary, several chapters present perspectives that break with reductionist dualisms between sacred vs.
On 22 Marchafter weeks of new street protests from organizations accusing Mesa of bowing to U.Coca Chewing and High Altitude Adaptation Tracy Torchetti The University of Western Ontario areas ofthe Andes, the coca leaf plays an important role in both their cultural and physiological well-being.
It has been attributed with the powers of a symbol of cultural identity (Allen; Bolton ), as well as a means of alleviating the. consumed in the Andes in South America, that will be examined in this chapter.
Coca in Debate: The Contradiction and Conflict between the UN Drug Conventions This chapter tells the story of how the coca plant and its traditional uses and also how the static views of culture and cultural identity inherent in the racial application of.
Another term that came into use, beginning in the s, is "plants of power", also associated with the counter-culture movement and associated especially with the writings of Carlos Castañeda (, ). Competing with this pharmaceutical cocaine was the medicinal plant industry—what you might call the “light industry” for coca—which still enjoyed considerable prestige at this time of medical pluralism and plant experimentation.
A Discussion on the Relation of the Coca Plant and Cultural Identity in the Andes ( words, 3 pages) Coca and Cultural Identity in the AndesThe leaves of Erythroxylum coca, the coca plant, have an overwhelming presence in the daily lives of the Runakuna.
Climate perception in entangled narratives of cultural and climatic change. The discussion thus far has attempted to trace out how local climate narratives reveal contrasting understandings of human-environment relationships.
Coca and cultural identity in an Andean Community (2nd ed Alterity and identity in the Andes. Journal of the.Download